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Advanced Topics and Best Practices

1. Introduction to Advanced Topics and Best Practices:
Once you have a good understanding of the basics of Spring Boot, it’s time to delve into advanced topics and best practices that can help you optimize your application’s performance, security, and maintainability. In this section, we will explore various advanced features, techniques, and best practices that can take your Spring Boot applications to the next level.

2. Configuration Properties and Profiles:
Spring Boot provides a powerful mechanism for externalizing configuration through properties files, environment variables, and command-line arguments. By utilizing configuration properties and profiles, you can customize the behavior of your application based on different environments or specific requirements.

Let’s consider an example of using configuration properties and profiles in a Spring Boot application:

2.1. Define Configuration Properties:
@ConfigurationProperties(prefix = “myapp”)
public class MyAppProperties {
private String apiUrl;
private int maxConnections;

// Getters and setters

2.2. Configure Properties:
apiUrl: https://api.example.com
maxConnections: 10

2.3. Use Configuration Properties in a Component:
public class MyService {
private final MyAppProperties appProperties;

public MyService(MyAppProperties appProperties) {
this.appProperties = appProperties;

// Use appProperties in your code

In this example, we define a `MyAppProperties` class with `@ConfigurationProperties` annotation to map the properties defined in the YAML file. We then inject the `MyAppProperties` bean into a component (`MyService`) and use the properties in our code.

3. Advanced Database Integration:
Spring Boot offers seamless integration with databases through its support for various persistence frameworks like JPA, Hibernate, and Spring Data JPA. Advanced database integration techniques can further enhance the performance, scalability, and efficiency of your Spring Boot applications.

Let’s consider an example of using advanced database integration techniques in a Spring Boot application:

3.1. Optimizing Database Queries:
public class UserRepository {
private EntityManager entityManager;

public List<User> findActiveUsers() {
String jpql = “SELECT u FROM User u WHERE u.active = true”;
TypedQuery<User> query = entityManager.createQuery(jpql, User.class);
return query.getResultList();

3.2. Caching with Spring Cache:
public class UserService {
public User getUserById(Long id) {
// Retrieve user from the database

@CacheEvict(value = “users”, key = “#user.id”)
public void updateUser(User user) {
// Update user in the database

In this example, we optimize database queries by using JPQL (Java Persistence Query Language) and TypedQuery to fetch only active users from the database. We also leverage Spring Cache annotations (`@Cacheable` and `@CacheEvict`) to cache the results of expensive database operations, improving application performance.

4. Reactive Programming with Spring WebFlux:
Reactive programming is an increasingly popular paradigm for building responsive, scalable, and resilient applications. Spring WebFlux provides reactive programming support in Spring Boot, allowing you to build non-blocking, event-driven applications.

Let’s consider an example of using reactive programming with Spring WebFlux in a Spring Boot application:

4.1. Define Reactive REST Endpoint:
public class UserController {
private final UserRepository userRepository;

public UserController(User

Repository userRepository) {
this.userRepository = userRepository;

public Flux<User> getAllUsers() {
return userRepository.findAll();

public Mono<User> getUserById(@PathVariable Long id) {
return userRepository.findById(id);

In this example, we define a `UserController` with reactive endpoints that return a `Flux` or `Mono` from the `UserRepository`. `Flux` represents a stream of multiple values, while `Mono` represents a stream of a single value or an empty stream.

5. Testing Best Practices:
Proper testing is crucial for ensuring the correctness and stability of your Spring Boot applications. Spring Boot provides excellent support for testing, and adopting best practices can help you write robust and maintainable test cases.

Let’s consider some testing best practices for Spring Boot applications:

5.1. Unit Testing with Mockito:
public class UserServiceTest {
private UserService userService;

private UserRepository userRepository;

public void testGetUserById() {
// Mock repository behavior
.thenReturn(Optional.of(new User(1L, “John Doe”)));

// Call the service method
User user = userService.getUserById(1L);

// Verify the result
assertEquals(“John Doe”, user.getName());

5.2. Integration Testing with SpringBootTest:
@SpringBootTest(webEnvironment = SpringBootTest.WebEnvironment.RANDOM_PORT)
public class UserControllerTest {
private TestRestTemplate restTemplate;

public void testGetAllUsers() {
ResponseEntity<List<User>> response = restTemplate.exchange(“/users”,
HttpMethod.GET, null, new ParameterizedTypeReference<List<User>>() {});

assertEquals(HttpStatus.OK, response.getStatusCode());

In these examples, we demonstrate unit testing using Mockito to mock dependencies and integration testing using `@SpringBootTest` and `TestRestTemplate` to make HTTP requests to the application.

6. Conclusion:
In this section, we explored advanced topics and best practices in Spring Boot development. We covered configuration properties and profiles, advanced database integration techniques, reactive programming with Spring WebFlux, and testing best practices. By applying these advanced concepts and adopting best practices, you can optimize the performance, scalability, and maintainability of your Spring Boot applications, ensuring they meet the highest standards in the industry.

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About Author
Ozzie Feliciano CTO @ Felpfe Inc.

Ozzie Feliciano is a highly experienced technologist with a remarkable twenty-three years of expertise in the technology industry.

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